The Indian Express | 2 weeks ago | 16-01-2023 | 10:45 pm
Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for January 16, 2023. If you missed the January 13, 2023 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it hereFRONT PAGEAt least 68 killed as Nepal plane crashes before landingSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.Mains Examination: • General Studies II: India and its neighbourhood- relations.• General Studies III: Disaster and disaster management.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- At least 68 people were dead after a Yeti Airlines ATR 72 aircraft carrying 72 on board including five Indians crashed in Nepal’s Pokhara around 11 am on Sunday. Reports said the aircraft, with 68 passengers and four crew on board, crashed a few kilometres from its destination about 20 minutes after it took off from Kathmandu for Pokhara. This is Nepal’s worst crash since March 2018, when a US-Bangla flight from Dhaka crashed on landing in Kathmandu, killing 51 of the 71 people on board.• What causes air crash?• What makes flying risky in Nepal?• What are the causes for a post-crash fire?• What happens when there is a post-crash fire?• Do chances of survivors decrease when a plane catches fire after a crash?• Know some significant plane crashes in Nepal as well as in India• Even though plane crashes don’t happen very often, they cause a lot of damage and give the people involved very little chance of surviving. It has been observed that the majority of accidents occur during take-offs and landings. What role does disaster management play in the aviation industry?• What factors contribute to aircraft accidents?• What are the potential risk-reduction strategies and post-disaster requirements for the aircraft disaster?• Past aviation disasters-What Lessons did we learn?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍18 air crashes in 22 yrs, more than 350 killed: Nepal’s deadly recordHigh interest costs may force RBI to cut dividend to govtSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social DevelopmentMains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-The surplus available with the Reserve Bank of India for transfer or the RBI dividend to the Union government is likely to remain low in the current financial year ending March 2023 because of higher expenditure incurred by the central bank due to rising interest rates and higher costs in managing surplus liquidity in the system.• What do you understand by ‘RBI dividend’ or ‘RBI surplus’?• What are the rules regarding payment of dividend?• How does RBI pay dividend to government?• How much excess does RBI have now?• Why RBI gives dividend to government?• How does the RBI earn profits?• Why have dividend payments fallen so dramatically?• What RBI will do in the case of any emergency requirement?• The surplus available with the Reserve Bank of India for transfer or the RBI dividend to the Union government is likely to remain low in the current financial year ending March 2023-Why?• For Your Information-While the RBI transferred a lower surplus of Rs 30,307 crore in FY2022 (Rs 99,126 crore in FY2021) to the government, the lowest in 10 years, the surplus this financial year is also likely to be on the lower side. The lower dividend could be due to higher interest paymeznts to banks which parked their surplus liquidity in the reverse repo window. The RBI can bank on the Contingency Fund which was at Rs 3,10,986.94 crore as of March 2022 in the case of any emergency requirement.• What is ‘reverse repo’ rate?• Do You Know-Under reverse repo, the RBI borrows from banks, while under the repo window, RBI lends to banks. The reverse repo rate is 3.35 per cent and the repo rate is 6.25 per cent.• What is Currency and Gold Revaluation Account (CGRA) and Investment Revaluation Account-Foreign Securities (IRA-FS)?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍Explained: RBI’s payouts to the govt — why, and how muchTHE CITYMohalla clinics for women start: Short queues, need for diagnostic machinesSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social DevelopmentMains Examination: General Studies II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story– Two months after the launch of four mahila mohalla clinics by the Delhi government, women have started visiting the clinics for treatment related to gynaecological issues and other ailments. Launched on November 3, the clinics are still in their pilot project. The clinic caters to children less than 12 years and women visiting for gynaecology-related issues.• What exactly is the Mohalla Clinic?• What is the concept of Mohalla clinic?• How successful is Mohalla clinic in Delhi?• The COVID-19 pandemic damaged even the most advanced healthcare systems around the world. In this case, how crucial is the mohalla clinic?• What are the key issues faced by the healthcare sector of India?• India’s Health Budget-Know the Statistics• The National Health Policy 2017-know its key featuresOther Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍Sisodia seeks action against officials who ‘stalled mohalla clinic system’📍Express Explained: What Are Mahila Mohalla Clinics And What Services Do They Provide?GOVT & POLITICSOpp to challenge remote voting proposalSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.Mains Examination: General Studies II: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- On the eve of a meeting convened by the Election Commission (EC) to demonstrate the functioning of the multi-constituency Remote Voting Machine (RVM), several Opposition parties led by the Congress on Sunday met and decided to oppose the proposal at the meeting on Monday.• Remote Electronic Voting Machine (RVM)-Know in detail• “Migration based disenfranchisement is indeed not an option in the age of technological advancement”-Discuss• Why Remote Electronic Voting Machine?• Remote Electronic Voting Machine and Migrants enfranchisement-connect the dots• What are the challenges associated with migrant voters?• What does the term “domestic migrant” mean?• Implementation of Remote Electronic Voting Machine-What are the Administrative, legal and technological challenges?• What are the recent key electoral reforms proposed by Election Commission of India?• Election Commission of India and Article 324 of the Constitution-Know in detail• The independent and impartial functioning of the Election Commission-How it is ensured?• Election Commission of India- Powers and Functions• System of Election- First past the post electoral system.• How Elections are conducted in India?• The Constitution of India has prescribed the qualifications (legal, educational, administrative or judicial) of the members of the Election Commission-True or False?• The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission-True or False?• Chief Election Commissioner and the two other Election Commissioners have equal powers-True or False?• In case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief election commissioner and/or two other election commissioners, the matter is decided by the Supreme Court of India-Right or Wrong?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍Election Commission says ready to roll out pilot for migrants to vote remotelyTHE EDITORIAL PAGEThe crisis on our roadsSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.Mains Examination: General Studies III: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- Sudeep Lakhtakia and Grant Ennis writes: Evidence-based interventions can radically decrease crash fatalities. The language used to describe crashes is critical in building public demand and political will for these changes• Do You Know-Across India, the National Crime Records Bureau reported over four lakh road “accident” cases in 2021, with 1.6 lakh fatalities — up by four per cent from 2017.• “The fact that road deaths are routinely labelled “accidents” contributes to public inaction against this preventable killer”-Analyse• “Evidence from places with sterling road safety records shows that road deaths can be prevented by strong government action”-Elaborate further• Road Accidents in India-Know Broad Profile of Road Accidents 2020 vis-a-vis 2019• Why Road Safety is must in India?• What position does India have in terms of Road safety?• What are the Initiatives Related to Road Safety?• What actions are being taken by the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Road Safety?• What are the Initiatives Related to Road Safety at national as well at international level?• What is ‘Brasilia Declaration on Road Safety’?• Know in detail about Motor Vehicles Amendment Act, 2019• What is the Significance of Road Safety in India?• ‘Every road crash is preventable’-How?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍In Cyrus Mistry car crash tragedy, a reminder of high numbers of road deaths in the countryTHE IDEAS PAGEV-P Dhankhar vs Supreme CourtSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.Mains Examination: General Studies II: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-Dushyant Dave writes: In declaring the NJAC Act unconstitutional the Supreme Court did what it is mandated to do under the Constitution. Nothing more and nothing less• How does the Constitution defines and creates the three organs of the state that is executive, legislature, and judiciary and their powers and limitations?• Quick Recall-On December 7, presiding over Rajya Sabha for the first time on the opening day of the winter session of Parliament, Dhankhar had called the striking down of the NJAC Act a “severe compromise” of parliamentary sovereignty and disregard of the “mandate of the people”. He had also said that Parliament, being the custodian of the “ordainment of the people”, was duty-bound to “address the issue” and expressed confidence that “it will do so”.• “The Supreme Court declared the NJAC Act and the consequential amendment to the Constitution as unconstitutional. The Supreme Court did what it is ordained to do under the Constitution. Nothing more and nothing less”-Analyse the statement• ‘The framers of the Constitution were clear in Articles 141 and 144’-What is Articles 141 and 144?• ‘The Constituent Assembly passionately debated the independence of the judiciary and provided for the judiciary to be independent of the executive and legislature’-Know that debate• What is Doctrine of the ‘basic structure’?• How has the doctrine of basic structure evolved?• What are the basic features of the Indian Constitution?• What power is granted by Article 368 of the Indian Constitution?• Shankari Prasad case (1951), Golak Nath case (1967), Kesavananda Bharati case (1973), Indira Nehru Gandhi case (1975), Minerva Mills case (1980), Waman Rao case (1981) and the evolution of basic Structure of the Constitution-connect the dots• What are the features of the ‘Basic Structure of Constitution’?• Can Parliament change the basic structure doctrine of the Indian Constitution?• Why is the doctrine criticised?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍With VP Jagdeep Dhankar’s remarks, a look at the basic structure of the Indian Constitution📍WITH DUE RESPECT📍Who was Kesvananda Bharati and how was he associated with the ‘Basic Structure’ doctrine?EXPLAINEDInflation moderating, but the big worry this year is growth: here’s whySyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social DevelopmentMains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- – Official data last week showed retail inflation grew by 5.7% in December — the fourth successive month when retail inflation has moderated. This was seen as a relief, given that inflation was the biggest economic story of calendar year 2022. The elevated inflation levels robbed people of their purchasing power and worsened India’s trade deficit, which resulted in India’s currency becoming weaker and the RBI losing significant forex reserves as it tried to stem the rupee’s slide.• Does that mean inflation has been tamed now?• Why is economic growth a bigger worry this year?• What factor distinguishes Indian inflation from many other developed countries?• What is Inflation?• Know the Types of Inflation like Moderate Inflation, Galloping Inflation, Hyper-Inflation, Stagflation, Deflation, Core Inflation etc.• What are the causes of Inflation in the present situation• How Inflation is Measured in India?• What is the Long term, Medium Term and Short-term impact of Inflation?• New Standard for Measuring Inflation in India and Old Standard for Measuring Inflation-Key Differences• Steps or Measures Taken by GOI to Control Inflation• What do you understand by Wholesale Price Index (WPI) and Consumer Price Index? WPI and CPI is published by whom?• What is the Monetary Policy Committee?• The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a Statutory Body-True or False?• What is the Primary Objective of monetary policy in India?• There are several direct and indirect instruments that are used for implementing monetary policy-What are they?• What is REPO rate?• What is Current Repo Rate?• What’s the RBI assessment on inflation?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic: 📍Inflation vs growth: RBI’s tricky challengeFor any queries and feedback, contact email@example.comThe UPSC KEY Indian Express is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel and stay updated with the latest Updates.
PUNE: There is a cold wave expected between 1st-4th Feb over Maharashtra, Mumbai will experience temperatures way below 0 degrees for the first time ever." This was among thousands of forwarded messages, including "The reintroduction of Rs 1000 notes into circulation is scheduled for February 1, 2023" and "Crypto currency is now a legal instrument of payment in India " that TOI recently busted as fake.Under the Times Verified campaign, readers send any suspicious messages then see circulating on social media to this paper on the WhatsApp number 9819888887. To verify their credibility, our expert panel - comprising reporters, editors and representatives from the municipality and government - taps into its carefully-cultivated network of trustworthy sources.Launched nationally on November 21 last year, the Times Verified initiative aims to break the chain of viral misinformation and disinformation that has been infecting social media groups. Since the launch, TOI's editorial team has received close to 1.2 lakh messages, half of which turned out to be false. Besides misleading headlines like "The retirement age for all Govt employees increased to 67 from 15th Jan 2023" and "12 passengers of Yeti Airlines that crashed, have survived and are getting treated at a local medical Center in Nepal", the fake news included panic-inducing messages like "Meta announces major down time of 3 days for all its social media platforms starting 3rd Feb 2023, resulting out of scheduled maintenance."Recently, at the Election Commission of India's international conference on the use of technology election integrity in Delhi, Anthony Banbury, president of the US-based International Foundation for Electoral Systems, stated that misinformation was one of the biggest threats to democracy and electoral integrity. Banbury said technological tools were being developed and made available to individuals, candidates, political parties and "malign actors". "More and more companies are willing to sell commercial services to candidates, parties or nefarious actors who want to influence election outcomes to spread misinformation campaigns, to attack political opponents. And where those attacks are coming from are not seen by those consuming the information via social media," Banbury added.In this scenario, the job of our chain-breakers - readers who have been forwarding dubious messages to help identify red flags - is significant. Among these fake news chain-breakers today are readers like Karnataka's Rathnakar Holla, West Bengal's Tapas Das and Maharashtra's Vivek Amonkar, Subhash Bahulekar and Atul Bag. To join them in the war on misinformation, all you have to do is send anxiety-causing headlines doing the rounds of social media networks to our expert panel.
Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis speaking at an election rally in Aurangabad.Aurangabad: A month after he said the Sena-BJP government in Maharashtra has no plans to restore the Old Pension Scheme, Deputy Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis today spoke of a possible rethink."Let me be clear, we are not negative about it (OPS). We will discuss it with finance and other departments. But whatever be the solution, it has to be long-term, not short-term," the BJP leader said, mirroring the rather ambiguous position taken by his party in other states as well.The Congress and other Opposition parties have recently reverted to the OPS — phased out in early 2004 — in states they govern, such as Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. The BJP has been against it, citing huge financial burden on governments, but its leaders have added a may-consider-it caveat.The OPS gave employees with 20 years of service at least 50 per cent of their last salary as pension, but the burden was entirely on the government and there was no corpus collected from the staff. Under the New Pension Scheme (NPS), government and staff both contribute — 10 and 14 per cent of the salary, respectively — towards a fund from which the pension is later drawn.Mr Fadnavis was speaking at a rally ahead of the January 30 Legislative Council polls, seeking votes for BJP's Kiran Patil from Aurangabad Division Teachers' Constituency. Mr Patil is hoping to unseat the NCP's Vikram Kale, who has raised the OPS demand."These people only talk (about OPS)," Mr Fadnavis said in a reference to the NCP, "But if there is going to be a change in the present pension scheme to the old one, only we (BJP) have the courage to do that; not these people."PromotedListen to the latest songs, only on JioSaavn.comHis comment comes less than two weeks after Chief Minister Eknath Shinde, too, said the his government is "positive" on this issue. He, too, was speaking at an election rally in support of a BJP candidate in a teachers' constituency.In December, however, responding to a BJP MLA's question in the assembly, Mr Fadnavis had said, "The government will not revive the old pension scheme. It will put an additional burden of Rs 1.1 lakh crore on the state exchequer."
Questions over whether Uddhav Thackeray would continue to remain the president of Shiv Sena abounds as the Election commission has not yet given the go-ahead for the camp to hold its national executive meet where they could relect him.Thackeray's term as president of the party ends on January 23. While the Sena canp had petitioned the Election Commission to allow it to hold its national executive the EC has not yet decided on petition. The faction loyal to Uddhav and experts however claim that even without the EC nod Uddhav would continue to remain the Shiv Sena president."The party will decide who the party president is and for our party it will be Uddhav Thackeray," said Shiv Sena MP Sanjay Raut while speaking to reporters in Jammu.In Maharashtra too, other leaders of the Uddhav faction like Shiv Sena MLA Bhaskar Jadhav and the Shiv Sena's Opposition leader of the Legislative council Ambadas Danve claimed that Uddhav would remain the party president even without the elections.ET spoke to Professor Ulhas Bapat an expert on constitution law, Bapat claimed that Uddhav would remain the Shiv Sena President even after his term ends.
As per the annual reports of political parties released by the Election Commission (EC) Tuesday, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has shown total receipts of Rs 1,917.12 crore and expenditure of Rs 854.46 crore in Financial Year 2021-’22. It received contributions through electoral bonds to the tune of Rs 1,033.7 crore.The Congress in its annual audit report for Financial Year 2021-22 has shown its expenditure at Rs 400.41 crore and receipts of Rs 541.27 crore. It has shown grants, donations and contributions to the tune of Rs 347.99 crore.The 2019 to 2020 financial year, which saw the previous Lok Sabha polls, saw the highest income and spending by parties over the last five years. In this period, the BJP’s income touched Rs 3,623.28 crore, as per the Election Commission reports. That year, it declared its expenditure as Rs 1,651.02 crore. The Congress also saw its income go up to Rs 682.2 crore, while its expenditure was Rs 998.15 crore.Analysis of data over the last five years shows that there has been a fluctuation in the incomes and expenditures of the two parties. Besides the poll year, the BJP’s income in the year 2017-’18 was relatively high at Rs 1027.3 crore. The following financial year, 2018-’2019, it was the lowest at Rs 241 crore.A look at how the two parties income and expenditure fared in the previous years:BJP Income over the yearsCongress income over the years
With more than a month to go for the Kasba Assembly bypoll in Maharashtra, all eyes are on the BJP, which is yet to announce its candidate. The bypoll was necessitated due to the demise of sitting BJP legislator Mukta Tilak. While a few local BJP leaders have demanded that the party field a member of the Tilak family to enable an unopposed election as a tribute to Mukta Tilak, a former Pune mayor, other aspirants are waiting in the wings.After Tilak succumbed to cancer last month, BJP leader Ujjwal Keskar publicly made a statement urging the party to consider her husband Shailesh or son Kunal as their candidate for the bypoll scheduled on February 27.“The Kasba bypoll should be unopposed as a tribute to Mukta Tilak and the party should support a member of the Tilak family. Thus, a request has been made to BJP leaders to provide a ticket to a Tilak family member,” said Keskar.According to BJP sources, while the party is yet to take a decision, the Tilak family is not averse to contesting the election if a family member gets a party ticket.However, as the Tilak family members lack political experience, this has raised hopes among other aspirants, including Ganesh Bidkar, Hemant Rasane and Dheeraj Ghate. The name of Medha Kulkarni, former BJP legislator from Kothrud Assembly seat, is also making the rounds. She was asked to refrain from contesting elections to make way for then state BJP chief Chandrakant Patil to contest from the Kothrud seat, which was considered to safe seat for BJP. Kulkarni had registered her protest but was later pacified and made vice-president of the national unit of the BJP women’s wing.From the Opposition, Congress leader Arvind Shinde, the city unit chief who lost to Mukta Tilak in 2019, said he has already conveyed to the party that the local unit was ready to contest the seat. The Congress also has another aspirant, Ravindra Dhangekar, who contested the seat as a Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) candidate in 2014 and lost to Girish Bapat.Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader Rupali Patil Thombare, who recently switched sides from MNS, has also expressed her wish to contest the Kasba bypoll if her party permits. Thombare had pointed out that the BJP has been fielding candidates in bypolls for seats that were vacated due to the demise of other politicians. However, she was pulled up for going public with her wish to contest.Local Shiv Sena (UBT) leaders have also conveyed their readiness to contest the Kasba bypoll.The Opposition Maha Vikas Aghadi (MVA) alliance is likely to come up with a strategy for the bypoll elections. They are presently contesting state Legislative Council seats as an alliance.