Learn about Memorandum of Procedure, Article 225; and morePremium Story

The Indian Express | 2 weeks ago | 17-01-2023 | 10:45 pm

Learn about Memorandum of Procedure, Article 225; and morePremium Story

Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for January 17, 2023. If you missed the January 16, 2023 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it hereFRONT PAGEGovt wants nominee on panel to choose judges, Opp says bid to captureSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and GovernanceMain Examination: General Studies II: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the JudiciaryKey Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- Amid the tug of war between the Centre and Supreme Court Collegium over the appointment of judges, Union Law Minister Kiren Rijiju has written to Chief Justice of India D Y Chandrachud “suggesting” the inclusion of a government nominee in the decision-making process for shortlisting of judges.• What is the role of the government in the decision-making process for the shortlisting of judges?• What you understand by the term ‘Memorandum of Procedure’?• Why is the government making suggestions on ‘Memorandum of Procedure’?• Earlier, in an interview at the Times Now Summit 2022, Law Minister Rijiju Described the Collegium system as “alien” to the Constitution-what is your take for the collegium system?• First of all, what is your understanding about the collegium system?• What is the issue of conflict between Judiciary and Executive with respect to the appointment of Judges?• Executive Vs Judiciary for appointment of judges in higher judiciary-Know in detail• What is the sanctioned strength of Supreme Court Judges in India?• Who appoints the Judges of the Supreme Court?• What does the Collegium consider while making the recommendation?• National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act 2014-Know the key highlights• Supreme Court on NJAC Act 2014 (99th Constitutional Amendment Act)-know in detail• First Judges Case (1982), Second Judges Case (1993) and Third Judges Case (1998)-Know in detail• What was the Supreme court’s ruling in the Second Judges case (1993), with respect to the appointment of a judge?• Third Judges case (1998) and Supreme Court’s ruling in case of the appointment-What was the Supreme Court’s ruling?• The National Judicial Appointments Commission Act of 2014 and the Collegium System-Compare and Contrast• The Constitution has made certain provisions to safeguard and ensure the independent and impartial functioning of a Judges-Know in detailOther Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍Law Minister’s suggestion to CJI on MoP: the context and backgroundEXPRESS NETWORKSC tells petitioner to move Uttarakhand HCSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.Mains Examination: • General Studies I: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.• General Studies III: Disaster and disaster management.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-The Supreme Court Monday asked a petitioner who had approached it over the issue of land subsistence in Uttarakhand’s Joshimath to move the state High Court which is already looking into a similar plea.• What is Land subsidence or subsidence of the land?• Why Joshimath is sinking?• What are the types of subsidence?• What is the most common cause of subsidence?• What is Article 225 of the Constitution?• Map Work-Joshimath• The appearance of cracks on many roads and houses across Joshimath, due to land subsidence, is neither a new phenomenon in this region-Why this region is more prone to land subsidence?• “Today’s situation is a result of a variety of reasons, both natural and man-made,”-Can you tell what are the man-made reasons?• What M C Mishra committee report said regarding the same?• What experts says about Joshimath town-planning and construction work?• ‘Relief and rescue efforts were intensified in Joshimath after it was declared a landslide and subsidence-hit zone’-What happens when a place is declared a landslide and subsidence-hit zone?• How disaster management is done in the landslide and subsidence-hit zone?• How do the Centre and state government ensure the safety and rehabilitation of residents?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍Safety of people in areas affected by subsidence is top priority: PMOPrevious year UPSC Mains Question Covering similar theme:📍 Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (2021, GS3)📍 Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. (2020, GS3)📍Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and its threat to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterized? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters. (2019, GS3)📍Disaster preparedness is the first step in any disaster management process. Explain how hazard zonation mapping will help disaster mitigation in the case of landslides. (2019, GS3)📍How important is vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System?(2013, GS3)THE EDITORIAL PAGEThe footloose voteSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.Mains Examination: General Studies II: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-S Y Quraishi writes: Getting political parties to agree on a “remote” machine is a tall order in view of the persisting questions even about the existing stand-alone EVMs. Acceptable: That’s the keyword that must be respected.• What are the significant features of India’s electoral record?• ‘While only 17 per cent were registered and 45 percent of them turned out to vote in 1951 in India’s first general election, in 2019, India’s latest general election, over 91 per cent of its eligible citizens were registered with 67 per cent of them coming out to vote, which is the highest voter turnout in the nation’s history’-know India’s election journey from 1951• ‘A third of the eligible voters, a whopping 30 crore people, do not vote’-why?• Do You Know-The Election Commission had earlier formed a “Committee of Officers on Domestic Migrants” to address this issue. The Committee’s report submitted in 2016 suggested a solution in the form of “remote voting”.• “The Supreme Court, in a series of cases, has conclusively interpreted the freedom to access the vote as within the ambit of Article 19(1)(a)”-Analyse• For Your Information-According to the 2011 Census, the number of internal migrants stands at 450 million, a 45 per cent surge from the 2001 census. Among these, 26 per cent of the migration (117 million) occurs inter-district within the same state, while 12 percent of the migration (54 million) occurs inter-state. Both official and independent experts admit that this number is underestimated. Short-term and circular migration could itself amount to 60-65 million migrants, which, including family members, could approach 100 million in itself. Half of these are inter-state migrants.• Remote Electronic Voting Machine (RVM)-Know in detail• “Migration based disenfranchisement is indeed not an option in the age of technological advancement”-Discuss• Why Remote Electronic Voting Machine?• Remote Electronic Voting Machine and Migrants enfranchisement-connect the dots• What are the challenges associated with migrant voters?• What does the term “domestic migrant” mean?• Implementation of Remote Electronic Voting Machine-What are the Administrative, legal and technological challenges?• What are the recent key electoral reforms proposed by Election Commission of India?• System of Election- First past the post electoral system.• How Elections are conducted in India?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍ECI ready to pilot remote voting for domestic migrants; migrant voter need not travel back to home state to voteEXPRESS NETWORKNew NCERT manual on transgender students silent on caste, patriarchySyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.Main Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-Over a year after it removed a document on inclusion of transgender children in schools, following an objection by the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) to suggestions on gender-neutral toilets and puberty blockers, the NCERT has released a fresh manual, which avoids the usage of not just those terms but also references to caste system and patriarchy that were highlighted in the previous one.• ‘Integrating Transgender Concerns in Schooling Processes’-Know the highlights• The previous draft manual “Inclusion of Transgender Children in School Education: Concerns and RoadMap” and now the proposed one “Integrating Transgender Concerns in Schooling Processes”-what are the differences between the two?• How Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 defines Transgender person?• What percentage of Indian population is transgender?• Do you Know-India’s 2011 Census was the first census in its history to incorporate the number of ‘trans’ population of the country. According to the 2011 Census, the number of persons who do not identify as ‘male’ or ‘female’ but as ‘other’ stands at 4,87,803 (0.04% of the total population). This ‘other’ category applied to persons who did not identify as either male or female, and included transgender persons.• “Sex is biologically determined but gender is a social construct”-Critically Analyse• Transgenders in India are still discriminated even after the Supreme Court has held that the right to self-identification of gender is part of the right to dignity and autonomy under Article 21 of the Constitution-Why?• A National Council for Transgender (NCT) persons-role and objectives• What are the Yogyakarta Principles?• Employment rates of transgender in India-Know the data’s and Statistics• What was the Supreme Court’s verdict in National Legal Services Authority vs Union Of India, 2014?• Decriminalisation of homosexuality was much needed for transgenders and Section 377-Connect the dotsOther Important Articles Covering the same topic:📍Non-binary genders need more visibility in India’s Census 2021EXPLAINEDCancer in India: A status reportSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.Mains Examination: General Studies II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story- Deaths due to cancer have declined by 33% in the United States since 1991, according to a report by the American Cancer Society released last week. This has translated into 3.8 million fewer deaths, the report said, and attributed the success to early detection, lower rates of smoking, and improvements in cancer treatment. This trend is yet to be reflected in India. Even with improvements in treatment, both the incidence of cancer and mortality continue to rise in the country.• What is the incidence of cancer and mortality in India currently?• Why are some cancers on the decline and others continue to rise?• Have there been improvements in cancer treatments?• What must be done to bring down overall mortality like in the US?• What is the main cause of cancer?• How common is cancer in India?• Why India needs to put more emphasis on preventive healthcare?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍Indigenous cervical cancer vaccine ready, set to be part of Govt’s immunisation driveEXOPLANETSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.Mains Examination: General Studies III: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on January 11 announced that the James Webb Space Telescope has discovered its first new exoplanet. Researchers have labelled the planet as LHS 475 b, and it’s roughly the same size as Earth, the agency added. Located just 41 light-years away, the planet orbits very close to a red dwarf star and completes a full orbit in just two days.• What are exoplanets?• Why and how do we study them?• How are exoplanets discovered?• What are red dwarf stars?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍Explained: NASA’s Webb Telescope and the first look at the universe from 13 billion years agoECONOMYIndia’s exports drop 12.2% in December, trade deficit inches upSyllabus:Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.Key Points to Ponder:• What’s the ongoing story-The impact of an incipient recession in the west on India’s foreign trade has become unmistakable. Merchandise exports shrank 12.2 per cent in December 2022 from a year before to $34.5 billion, the second contraction in three months, owing to a slowdown in demand from key markets in the wake of aggressive rate hikes by major central banks and unfavourable base. Goods exports had contracted by 16.65 per cent on year in October, while a flat growth was reported in November.• What to look for in trade data?• Have exports rebounded from the October contraction?• What is causing the decline in exports growth?• What about India’s imports?• What about the trade deficit?Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    📍Explained: What is the Current Account Deficit, which widened in Q3 of the last FY?For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.comThe UPSC KEY Indian Express is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel and stay updated with the latest Updates.

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It’s fake news, Rs 1000 notes not coming back from February 1 in Maharashtra
Times of India | 2 days ago | 30-01-2023 | 06:49 am
Times of India
2 days ago | 30-01-2023 | 06:49 am

PUNE: There is a cold wave expected between 1st-4th Feb over Maharashtra, Mumbai will experience temperatures way below 0 degrees for the first time ever." This was among thousands of forwarded messages, including "The reintroduction of Rs 1000 notes into circulation is scheduled for February 1, 2023" and "Crypto currency is now a legal instrument of payment in India " that TOI recently busted as fake.Under the Times Verified campaign, readers send any suspicious messages then see circulating on social media to this paper on the WhatsApp number 9819888887. To verify their credibility, our expert panel - comprising reporters, editors and representatives from the municipality and government - taps into its carefully-cultivated network of trustworthy sources.Launched nationally on November 21 last year, the Times Verified initiative aims to break the chain of viral misinformation and disinformation that has been infecting social media groups. Since the launch, TOI's editorial team has received close to 1.2 lakh messages, half of which turned out to be false. Besides misleading headlines like "The retirement age for all Govt employees increased to 67 from 15th Jan 2023" and "12 passengers of Yeti Airlines that crashed, have survived and are getting treated at a local medical Center in Nepal", the fake news included panic-inducing messages like "Meta announces major down time of 3 days for all its social media platforms starting 3rd Feb 2023, resulting out of scheduled maintenance."Recently, at the Election Commission of India's international conference on the use of technology election integrity in Delhi, Anthony Banbury, president of the US-based International Foundation for Electoral Systems, stated that misinformation was one of the biggest threats to democracy and electoral integrity. Banbury said technological tools were being developed and made available to individuals, candidates, political parties and "malign actors". "More and more companies are willing to sell commercial services to candidates, parties or nefarious actors who want to influence election outcomes to spread misinformation campaigns, to attack political opponents. And where those attacks are coming from are not seen by those consuming the information via social media," Banbury added.In this scenario, the job of our chain-breakers - readers who have been forwarding dubious messages to help identify red flags - is significant. Among these fake news chain-breakers today are readers like Karnataka's Rathnakar Holla, West Bengal's Tapas Das and Maharashtra's Vivek Amonkar, Subhash Bahulekar and Atul Bag. To join them in the war on misinformation, all you have to do is send anxiety-causing headlines doing the rounds of social media networks to our expert panel.

It’s fake news, Rs 1000 notes not coming back from February 1 in Maharashtra
After No To Old Pension Scheme In Maharashtra, D Fadnavis Says "Will Discuss"
Ndtv | 5 days ago | 26-01-2023 | 03:56 pm
Ndtv
5 days ago | 26-01-2023 | 03:56 pm

Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis speaking at an election rally in Aurangabad.Aurangabad: A month after he said the Sena-BJP government in Maharashtra has no plans to restore the Old Pension Scheme, Deputy Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis today spoke of a possible rethink."Let me be clear, we are not negative about it (OPS). We will discuss it with finance and other departments. But whatever be the solution, it has to be long-term, not short-term," the BJP leader said, mirroring the rather ambiguous position taken by his party in other states as well.The Congress and other Opposition parties have recently reverted to the OPS — phased out in early 2004 — in states they govern, such as Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. The BJP has been against it, citing huge financial burden on governments, but its leaders have added a may-consider-it caveat.The OPS gave employees with 20 years of service at least 50 per cent of their last salary as pension, but the burden was entirely on the government and there was no corpus collected from the staff. Under the New Pension Scheme (NPS), government and staff both contribute — 10 and 14 per cent of the salary, respectively — towards a fund from which the pension is later drawn.Mr Fadnavis was speaking at a rally ahead of the January 30 Legislative Council polls, seeking votes for BJP's Kiran Patil from Aurangabad Division Teachers' Constituency. Mr Patil is hoping to unseat the NCP's Vikram Kale, who has raised the OPS demand."These people only talk (about OPS)," Mr Fadnavis said in a reference to the NCP, "But if there is going to be a change in the present pension scheme to the old one, only we (BJP) have the courage to do that; not these people."PromotedListen to the latest songs, only on JioSaavn.comHis comment comes less than two weeks after Chief Minister Eknath Shinde, too, said the his government is "positive" on this issue. He, too, was speaking at an election rally in support of a BJP candidate in a teachers' constituency.In December, however, responding to a BJP MLA's question in the assembly, Mr Fadnavis had said, "The government will not revive the old pension scheme. It will put an additional burden of Rs 1.1 lakh crore on the state exchequer."

After No To Old Pension Scheme In Maharashtra, D Fadnavis Says "Will Discuss"
The Numbers Game | BJP, Congress: As go the votes, so go the notes
The Indian Express | 1 week ago | 20-01-2023 | 02:45 pm
The Indian Express
1 week ago | 20-01-2023 | 02:45 pm

As per the annual reports of political parties released by the Election Commission (EC) Tuesday, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has shown total receipts of Rs 1,917.12 crore and expenditure of Rs 854.46 crore in Financial Year 2021-’22. It received contributions through electoral bonds to the tune of Rs 1,033.7 crore.The Congress in its annual audit report for Financial Year 2021-22 has shown its expenditure at Rs 400.41 crore and receipts of Rs 541.27 crore. It has shown grants, donations and contributions to the tune of Rs 347.99 crore.The 2019 to 2020 financial year, which saw the previous Lok Sabha polls, saw the highest income and spending by parties over the last five years. In this period, the BJP’s income touched Rs 3,623.28 crore, as per the Election Commission reports. That year, it declared its expenditure as Rs 1,651.02 crore. The Congress also saw its income go up to Rs 682.2 crore, while its expenditure was Rs 998.15 crore.Analysis of data over the last five years shows that there has been a fluctuation in the incomes and expenditures of the two parties. Besides the poll year, the BJP’s income in the year 2017-’18 was relatively high at Rs 1027.3 crore. The following financial year, 2018-’2019, it was the lowest at Rs 241 crore.A look at how the two parties income and expenditure fared in the previous years:BJP Income over the yearsCongress income over the years

The Numbers Game | BJP, Congress: As go the votes, so go the notes
All eyes on BJP as party is yet to decide on candidate for Kasba bypoll
The Indian Express | 1 week ago | 20-01-2023 | 02:45 pm
The Indian Express
1 week ago | 20-01-2023 | 02:45 pm

With more than a month to go for the Kasba Assembly bypoll in Maharashtra, all eyes are on the BJP, which is yet to announce its candidate. The bypoll was necessitated due to the demise of sitting BJP legislator Mukta Tilak. While a few local BJP leaders have demanded that the party field a member of the Tilak family to enable an unopposed election as a tribute to Mukta Tilak, a former Pune mayor, other aspirants are waiting in the wings.After Tilak succumbed to cancer last month, BJP leader Ujjwal Keskar publicly made a statement urging the party to consider her husband Shailesh or son Kunal as their candidate for the bypoll scheduled on February 27.“The Kasba bypoll should be unopposed as a tribute to Mukta Tilak and the party should support a member of the Tilak family. Thus, a request has been made to BJP leaders to provide a ticket to a Tilak family member,” said Keskar.According to BJP sources, while the party is yet to take a decision, the Tilak family is not averse to contesting the election if a family member gets a party ticket.However, as the Tilak family members lack political experience, this has raised hopes among other aspirants, including Ganesh Bidkar, Hemant Rasane and Dheeraj Ghate. The name of Medha Kulkarni, former BJP legislator from Kothrud Assembly seat, is also making the rounds. She was asked to refrain from contesting elections to make way for then state BJP chief Chandrakant Patil to contest from the Kothrud seat, which was considered to safe seat for BJP. Kulkarni had registered her protest but was later pacified and made vice-president of the national unit of the BJP women’s wing.From the Opposition, Congress leader Arvind Shinde, the city unit chief who lost to Mukta Tilak in 2019, said he has already conveyed to the party that the local unit was ready to contest the seat. The Congress also has another aspirant, Ravindra Dhangekar, who contested the seat as a Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) candidate in 2014 and lost to Girish Bapat.Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader Rupali Patil Thombare, who recently switched sides from MNS, has also expressed her wish to contest the Kasba bypoll if her party permits. Thombare had pointed out that the BJP has been fielding candidates in bypolls for seats that were vacated due to the demise of other politicians. However, she was pulled up for going public with her wish to contest.Local Shiv Sena (UBT) leaders have also conveyed their readiness to contest the Kasba bypoll.The Opposition Maha Vikas Aghadi (MVA) alliance is likely to come up with a strategy for the bypoll elections. They are presently contesting state Legislative Council seats as an alliance.

All eyes on BJP as party is yet to decide on candidate for Kasba bypoll